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  • Biron - birkbeck institutional research online home about browse by year browse by school browse by author login | create account meta-analysis of botulinum toxin treatment of spasmodic dysphonia: a review of 22 studies whurr, r. generic viagra sildenafil citrate ; nye, c. And lorch, marjorie p. (1998) meta-analysis of botulinum toxin treatment of spasmodic dysphonia: a review of 22 studies. International journal of language & communication disorders 33 (s1), pp. 327-329. Issn 1368-2822. Full text not available from this repository. Official url: abstract this meta-analysis focuses on the treatment effects of the use of botulinum toxin in laryngeal dystonia. cheap viagra online The vocal symptoms are characterized by spasms of the laryngeal muscles thus the use of the term spasmodic dysphonia (sd). viagra pills The objective of the intervention, i. E. Botulinum toxin treatment, is to reduce or eliminate the vocal spasms and thus improve the acoustic regularity of the voice. viagra generic The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of botulinum toxin in the treatment of sd by engaging in a ‘best synthesis’ systematic summary of existing research. The average treated sd patient in the 22 studies subjected to meta-analysis obtained 97% improvement as a result of treatment with botulinum toxin. viagra women lungs Item type: article school or research centre: birkbeck schools and research centres > school of social sciences, history and philosophy > applied linguistics and communication id code: 4874 deposited by: administrator deposited on: 03 jul 2012 12:07 last modified: 03 jul 2012 12:07 archive staff only: edit this record biron is powered by eprints 3 which is developed by the school of electronics and computer science at the university of southampton. viagra 50mg uk More information and software credits. generic viagra online Biron is affiliated to sherpa and sherpa-leap.. Ization, the inflammatory processes in the brainstem are unlikely to be the basis for the symptoms in sd as they would affect both speech and emotional vocalization. Perhaps the brainstem abnormalities serve as an interference with volitional laryngeal control during speech production because of the precise voice onset time requirements for speech sounds that are not required in emotional expression such as laughter and crying. Compensatory abnormalities may have developed in cortical control for speech production systems as the patient attempted to meet precise control demands for speech. viagra canada online Functional neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and blood level oxygenation-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging have been used to. order viagra viagra women lungs Twitter: